COVID-19 

 

Viruses Usually named by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV)

 

Based on their genetic structure to facilitate the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and medicines. Virologists and the broader scientific community do this work

Coronavirus ( CoV) is the family name of the virus that caused COVID-19 

 

How the disease got that name?


(COVID-19) is the name of the disease

(CO-VI-D-19)
The (CO) stands for corona. (VI) is for the virus. And (D) means disease. The 19 is for 2019, the year the disease first appeared in China. 


How the virus got that name?

(SARS-CoV-2) is the virus that caused COVID-19
 
They chose the virus name because it is genetically related to the coronavirus responsible for the SARS outbreak of 2003. While related, the two viruses are different.

References :

 

1-  https://www.ktvu.com/news/how-did-coronavirus-get-its-name

 

2- https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/technical-guidance/naming-the-coronavirus-disease-(covid-2019)-and-the-virus-that-causes-it

 Symptoms of COVID-19 

Symptoms of COVID-19 may appear 1-14 days after exposure.

Some people become infected, but Symptoms not shown, and illness is not present.

WHO-China Joint Mission Report of COVID-19 Symptoms ( Symptoms and Percentage of People infected with COVID-19)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 Other symptoms 

 *aches and pain
 *nasal congestion  

 *Loss  sense of smell 

 -These symptoms are usually mild and begin gradually. 

 In severe cases, it can cause 

 *Severe Pneumonia (inflammation of the lungs ) 

 *Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome 

 *Sepsis and septic shock 

 *80% of conformed COVID-19 Cases suffers from mild to moderate disease 

 Nearly 13% of confirmed COVID-19 Cases suffers from severe disease.  

References:

 

 1- https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/q-a-coronaviruses#:~:text=symptoms  

    

 2- https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/symptoms-testing/symptoms.html

    

 3- https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/novel-coronavirus-china/questions-answers

 

 4-- Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China. W. Guan, Z. Ni, Yu Hu, W. Liang, C. Ou, J. He, L. Liu, H. Shan, C. Lei, D.S.C. Hui, B. Du, L. Li, G. Zeng, K.-Y. Yuen, R. Chen 

Joint Pain 

or

Muscle pain 

14.8%

Headache

13.6%

Fever

87.9%

Dry Cough

67.7%

Shortness of breaths (SOB)

18.6%

Sore Throat

13.9%

Coughing blood 

0.9%

Fatigue

38.1%

Sputum production

33.4%

Nausea & Vomiting

5.0%

Diarrhea

3.7%

 blockage inside the eyelid

0.8%

Difficulty breathing 

18.7%

Chills

11.4%

Spreading Methods 

 

 

 

 

Infected Person------------------------To----------------------  Person Spread (Main Method) 

 

 

Close contact with others (within 2 meters ) 
through:


Droplets Transmission

The virus is released in the respiratory secretions when an infected persons cough or sneezes.  

 

Contaminated objects-------------------To---------------------------- Person 

 

 

The virus can live on surfaces for a few hours up to serval days (Varies under different conditions like a type of surface, temperature, etc.). It can live on these surfaces. 

 

(Aerosols) 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Maximum of 3 Hours 

(Copper)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

  Maximum of 4  Hours 

(Cardboard)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

         Maximum of 24 Hours        

(Plastic)  

                Maximum of 24 Hours                

(Stainless steel) 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

Maximum of  72  Hours

 

 


By Touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching their Face. It will lead to spreading the infection. 


 The virus that causes COVID-19 seems to be spreading quickly and sustainably in the community (“community spread”). 
 

References 

 

1- https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/how-covid-spreads.html?CDC_AA_refVal=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cdc.gov%2Fcoronavirus%2F2019-ncov%2Fprepare%2Ftransmission.html

 

2- https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/q-a-coronaviruses#:~:text=symptoms) 

Preventing Methods 

1- Hand hygiene (Main method) 

  • Washing with water and soap 

  • Using hand-sanitizer  ( 70% Alcohol-based solutions )

 

2- Social Distance

  • Staying at home (most effective )

  • Avoid close contact ( 3 feet or 1 meter. ) 

 

 

3- Protecting Self and others

  • Avoid Touching Face  

  • Cover mouth and nose with a mask in case you are ill or being Health Care Provider (HCP).

  • The proper way to cough and sneeze  

  • When coughing or sneezing, cover your mouth and nose with flexed elbow or tissue.

 

 

4-Clean and disinfect Environment. 

  • Throw tissue into the closed bin immediately after use 

  • Clean and disinfect frequently touched surfaces daily with EPA-registered disinfectants examples.

References

1- https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/prevention.html 


2- https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/q-a-coronaviruses

Diagnostic Tools

 

Clinicians should base their decisions on these criteria for COVID-19 test:

  • Signs and symptoms,

  • Local epidemiology

  • If the patient has had close contact with a confirmed COVID-19 patient or a history of travel from an area with sustained transmission within 14 days of symptom onset.

  • Clinicians should consider that recent studies indicate that people who are infected but do not have symptoms likely also play a role in the spread of COVID-19.

 

A- RT-PCR Test 

 

RT-PCR test is a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction test for the qualitative detection of nucleic acid from sars-CoV-2 in upper and lower respiratory specimens such as.

 

 

Results are for the identification of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. The SARS-CoV-2 RNA is generally detectable in respiratory specimens during the acute phase of infection. Positive results are indicative of the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA.

 

Clinical correlation with patient history and other diagnostic information is necessary to determine patient infection status.

 

The COVID-19 RT-PCR is only for use under the Food and Drug Administration’s Emergency Use Authorization.

 

The LoD (Limit of Detection) study established the lowest concentration of SARS-CoV-2 (genome copies(cp)/μL) that can be detected by the COVID-19 RT-PCR test at least 95% of the time. 

 

 

COVID-19 Rapid Test

 

COVID-19 Rapid Test qualitatively detects IgG and IgM antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in whole human blood, serum, and plasma samples. 

 

The IgM-IgG combined assay has better utility and sensitivity compared with a single IgM or IgG test. 

 

It is used for the rapid screening of SARS-CoV-2 carriers, symptomatic or asymptomatic, in hospitals, clinics, and test laboratories.

References : 

 

A- https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/lab/tool-virus-requests.html 

 

B- https://www.fda.gov/media/136151/download

COVID-19 Quiz 

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